1 ) C Language :
C Language is the base of most common language developed between 1969 and 1973 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with Linux OS.It is also useful to develop portable application software.
2) C++ :
Extended version of "C" developed by Bjarne Stroustrup starting in 1979 at Bell Labs.Originally it was named C with Classes.
C++ is popular to develop System Software,Device Driver,Application Software,Client-Server application,i-phone application.
Do you know that most of yahoo product use c++ to enhance productivity.
3) Java :
This prog. language developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems’ Java platform.
Most of syntax of c and c++ use by java.Java applications are typically compiled to byte code (class file) that can run on any Java Virtual Machine (JVM) regardless of computer architecture.
Actually Java just develop for an interactive television but it was too advanced for the digital cable telivision industry at the time.
4) Php :
PHP is a general-purpose scripting language that is especially suited to server-side web development where PHP generally runs on a web server. Like Xampp,Wampp etc also used to create dynamic flow over web-site.
Basically Php is open source language that any one can use it free of cost that's why most popular in market. Take an example.
5) C# :
C# was developed by Microsoft within the .NET C# is intended to be a simple, modern, general-purpose, object-oriented programming language.Its development team is led by Anders Hejlsberg. The most recent version is C# 4.0, which was released on April 12, 2010.
6) Vb.Net :
Visual Basic .NET (VB.NET) is an object-oriented computer programming language implemented on the.NET Framework. it's easy to develop desktop application.
7) Java Script :
One of the best offline testing purpose (client side ) scripting used to save bandwidth and time. Also make webpage more dynamic too.
There are no need to compile,it just embedded with html code to run independently on browser without any server.